Bob Saget

The recent demise of Bob Saget, famous comedian and champion for Scleroderma highlights the challenges that exist with this condition. Scleroderma is an autoimmune condition, that results in overproduction and deposition of the protein, collagen under the skin, and internal organs. Bob’s sister had died of Scleroderma and Bob was an ardent supporter of the Scleroderma Research Foundation. As we commemorate the life and work of this hero, if you or a loved one have Scleroderma, please seek evaluation and care. We, at CAROSP, are dedicated to the care and treatment of patients with Scleroderma and support the Scleroderma Research Foundation in its endeavors.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

What is Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Rheumatoid Arthritis is autoimmune arthritis along with joints. Rheumatoid Arthritis can seriously damage a wide variety of body systems skin, eyes, lungs, heart, and blood vessels. This disease can occur when the immune system of the body attacks its own body’s tissues. Rheumatoid Arthritis can affect the lining of your joints, causing a painful swelling that can eventually result in bone erosion and joint deformity.

Signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis are


What are the symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis?


  • Tender, warm, swollen joints
  • Joint stiffness is worse in the mornings and after inactivity
  • Fatigue, fever, and loss of appetite

Rheumatoid arthritis initially attacks smaller joints like fingers to your hands and your toes to your feet, and as the disease progresses, its symptoms get spread to the wrists, elbows, hips, knees, ankles, and shoulders. In most cases, symptoms may occur in the same joints on both sides of your body. Most people suffering from rheumatoid arthritis may face other body damages like


  • Skin
  • Eyes
  • Lungs
  • Heart
  • Kidneys
  • Salivary glands
  • Nerve tissue
  • Bone marrow
  • Blood vessels

Rheumatoid arthritis symptoms may differ from person to person.


What are the Causes and Risk factors?

The exact cause of Rheumatoid arthritis is not known, but it can run in the family. It can appear at any age; most commonly, it appears at the age of 40 to 60. Obesity and smoking can make RA worse. Women are at great risk of getting it than men.


How is Rheumatoid Arthritis diagnosed?

It is difficult to diagnose Rheumatoid arthritis in the early stages as there is no exact blood or physical examination that can confirm its presence. RA is diagnosed with the support of ESR or CRP because of an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, or sed rate) and may be C-reactive protein (CRP) that may show the availability of an inflammatory process in the body.

An X-ray can indicate the progress of RA, while MRI and ultrasound can help doctors to check the severity of disease in the body.


How can Rheumatoid Arthritis be treated?

No cure can be fully treated. But a doctor can suggest medicines, exercises, and surgery to manage this disease.



NSAIDs: These medicines can help to control pain and to reduce inflammation. Doctors may suggest stronger NSAIDs for chronic pain, and these medicines also have side effects like stomach upset, heart and kidney problems.

Steroids: These medicines relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and can slow joint damage. These medicines also have side effects like diabetes, weight gain, and thinning of bones.

Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs): These medicines slow down the progress of Rheumatoid arthritis save the joints and other tissues from permanent damage. Side effects vary but may include bone marrow suppression, liver damage, and severe lung infections.


Physical therapy

The doctor may recommend you to visit a therapist who can teach you exercises to keep your joints flexible.

Assistive devices can make it easy for you to avoid stressing your painful joints. For example, a kitchen knife equipped with a handgrip helps protect your finger and wrist joints. Certain tools, like buttonhooks, make it easier to get dressed. Catalogs and medical supply stores are also good places to look for ideas.


 Surgery for Rheumatoid Arthritis

This is the last option if medicines are not working. Surgery may have one or more of the following procedures:

Synovectomy- This surgery is used to remove the inflamed lining of joints can be performed on knees, elbows, wrists, fingers, and hips.

Tendon repair- The surgeon will repair your damaged tendon by a surgical process if required.

Joint fusion- Surgically fusing a joint may be suggested to stabilize or realign a joint and to provide relief from pain when the joint replacement isn’t your option.

Total joint replacement- In joint replacement surgery, your surgeon takes off the damaged parts of the joint and inserts a prosthesis that is made of metal and plastic.

Vitamin D Deficiency

What is Vitamin D Deficiency?

Vitamin D is vital for strong bones because it stimulates the body to use calcium from the diet. Traditionally, vitamin D deficiency has been incorporated with rickets, a disease in which the bone tissue doesn’t properly mineralize, beginning to soft bones and skeletal deformities. But frequently, research is revealing the value of vitamin D in defending against a host of health problems.


What are the symptoms and health issues of Vitamin D Deficiency?

Symptoms of bone disorder and muscle weakness can indicate you have a vitamin D deficiency. Despite this, for many people, the symptoms are complex. However, even without symptoms, too little vitamin D can profess health risks. Despicable blood levels of the vitamin have been linked with the following:


  • Enhanced risk of death from cardiovascular disease
  • Cognitive impairment in older adults
  • Mordant asthma in children
  • Cancer

The research proposes that vitamin D could play a part in the prevention and treatment of several various conditions, including type1 and type 2 diabetes, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and multiple sclerosis.


What are the causes o Vitamin D Deficiency?

Vitamin D deficiency can begin for a number of reasons:

You don’t consume the prescribed levels of the vitamin over time. This is possible if you follow a strict vegan diet because most of the natural sources are animal-based, like fish and fish oils, egg yolks, fortified milk, and beef liver.

Your vulnerability to sunlight is limited. Often the body makes vitamin D when your skin is exhibited to sunlight, and you may be at venture of deficiency if you are homebound, live in northern latitudes, wear long gowns or head coverings for religious purposes, or have a job that prevents sun exposure. During the winter, vitamin D deficiency can be more common because there is less sunlight available.


How much vitamin D do you need?

In normal people, the amount of vitamin D required per day differs by age. It is essential to know what are the general recommendations. If your doctor is monitoring your blood levels, he or she might recommend higher or lower doses based on your requirements.

If you have osteoporosis, your doctor might advise a blood test of your vitamin D levels. The number of vitamin D supplements can be customized for each person based on the outcomes. For many old age patients, a vitamin D supplement including anywhere between 800 to 2000 IUs daily, which can be achieved without a prescription, can be both safe and beneficial. It is crucial to speak with your doctor about your individual needs.


How is a vitamin D deficiency diagnosed?

Your practitioner may recommend a blood test to regulate your levels of vitamin D. There are two forms of tests that might be ordered, but the most typical is the 25-hydroxyvitamin D, known as 25(OH)D for short. For the blood test, a specialist will use a needle to take blood from a vein.


How is vitamin D deficiency treated?

The intentions of treatment and prevention are the same—to reach, and then control, a satisfactory level of vitamin D in the body. While you might contemplate eating more foods that comprise vitamin D and getting a little bit of sunlight, you will be told to take vitamin D supplements.

Vitamin D appears in two forms: D2 and D3. D2, also named ergocalciferol, comes from plants. D3, also called cholecalciferol, comes from animals. You require a prescription to get D2. D3, though, is available over the counter. It is more efficiently occupied than D2 and lasts longer in the body dose-for-dose. Work with your doctor to obtain if you desire to take a vitamin supplement and how much to take if it is necessitated. Do not take higher-than-prescribed doses of vitamin D without first consulting it with your doctor. Though, your doctor might recommend higher doses of vitamin D if he or she is checking your blood levels and balancing your dose accordingly. Also, be careful about getting large doses of vitamin A onward with the D in some fish oils. Vitamin A can also lead to toxic levels and can cause serious problems.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

What is Systemic Lupus Erythematosus?

The immune system usually fights off serious infections and bacteria to keep the body healthy. An autoimmune disease begins when the immune system attacks the body because it involves something foreign. There are numerous autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus.

The word lupus has been used to classify several immune diseases that have similar clinical presentations and laboratory features but are the most common type of lupus. People are often referring to SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS when they say lupus.

SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS is a chronic disease that can have phases of worsening symptoms that alternate with periods of mild symptoms. Most people with SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS can live a routine life with treatment.

According to the Lupus Foundation of America, almost 1.5 million Americans are living with diagnosed lupus. The foundation assumes that the number of people who are having the condition is much higher and that many cases go undiagnosed.


What are the symptoms of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus?

Symptoms can differ and can change over time. Common symptoms include:


  • severe tiredness
  • joint pain
  • joint swelling
  • headaches
  • a rash on the nose and cheeks, which is termed as “butterfly rash.”
  • hair loss
  • anemia
  • blood-clotting obstacles
  • fingers turning blue or white and tingling when cold, which is identified as Raynaud’s phenomenon
  • Other symptoms depend on the portion of the body the disease is overwhelming, such as the digestive tract, the heart, or the skin.

Lupus symptoms are also symptoms of various other diseases, which makes diagnosis tricky.



The disease isn’t associated with a certain gene, but people with lupus frequently have family members with other autoimmune conditions.



Environmental triggers can include:


  • ultraviolet rays
  • regular medications
  • viruses
  • physical or emotional stress
  • trauma


Sex and hormones

SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS attacks women more than men. Women also may undergo more severe symptoms during pregnancy and with their menstrual periods. Both of these considerations have led some medical professionals to assume that the female hormone estrogen may play a role in causing SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Though, more research is still required to prove this theory.


How is Systemic Lupus Erythematosus diagnosed?

Your practitioner will do a physical exam to monitor for typical signs and symptoms of lupus, including:


  • sun sensitivity rashes, like a malar or butterfly rash
  • mucous membrane ulcers, which may happen in the mouth or nose
  • arthritis, which is swelling or tenderness of the small joints of the hands, knee, feet, and wrists
  • hair loss
  • hair thinning
  • symptoms of cardiac or lung involvement, such as rubs, murmurs, or irregular heartbeats

No one single test is indicative for SYSTEMIC LUPUS, but screenings that can assist your doctor come to an informed diagnosis include:


  • blood tests, such as antibody tests and a comprehensive blood count
  • a urinalysis
  • a chest X-ray


How Systemic Lupus Erythematosus can be treated?

No remedy for SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS exists. The purpose of treatment is to reduce symptoms. Treatment can vary depending on how critical your symptoms are and which parts of your body SLE affect. The treatments may include:


  • anti-inflammatory medications for joint injury and stiffness, such as these options available online
  • steroid creams for rashes
  • corticosteroids to reduce the immune response
  • Antimalarial drugs for skin and joint problems
  • disease-modifying drugs or targeted immune system agents for more critical cases

Doctors might suggest eating or avoiding certain foods and lessening stress to overcome the likelihood of triggering symptoms. You might require to have screenings for osteoporosis because steroids can thin your bones. Your doctor may also prescribe preventive care, such as immunizations that are protected for people with autoimmune diseases and cardiac screenings.

Psoriatic Arthritis

What is Psoriatic Arthritis?

Psoriatic arthritis is a kind of arthritis that affects some people who have psoriasis — a state that features red patches of skin covered with silvery scales. Most bodies develop psoriasis first and are later diagnosed with psoriatic arthritis, but joint difficulties can sometimes occur before skin patches appear. Joint pain, stiffness, and swelling are the central signs and symptoms of PA. They can attack any part of your body, including your fingertips and spine, and can vary from approximately mild to severe. In both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, disease glares may vary with periods of remission.


What are the symptoms of Psoriatic arthritis? 

Psoriatic arthritis can develop gradually, with mild symptoms, or it can develop suddenly and severely. Some people may develop it in a joint after an impairment. Development may also be related to genetics. Scientists suspect that at least 10 percent of the overall population inherits one or more of the genes that produce a predisposition to psoriasis.


What are the general symptoms?


  • Fatigue
  • Tenderness, discomfort, and swelling over tendons
  • Swollen fingers and toes that sometimes relate to sausages
  • Stiffness, discomfort, throbbing, swelling, and tenderness in one or more joints
  • Reduced range of motion
  • Morning stiffness and tiredness
  • Nail changes, like pitting or separation from the nail bed
  • Redness and discomfort of the eye (uveitis)

A patient could have few skin injuries but many joints affected by arthritis.


What the causes of Psoriatic arthritis?

The genes you take from your parents can make you more likely to acquire psoriatic arthritis. If you have genes that set you at the hazard of this condition, the following may then trigger it:


  • an infection
  • a disaster or injury
  • overweight
  • smoking
  • There is also an element of uncertainty, and it might not be probable to say for sure what caused your condition.


How is Psoriatic arthritis diagnosed?

Unluckily, there is no comprehensive diagnostic test for Psoriatic arthritis. The analysis is made mostly by your doctor’s assessment and using elimination. For example, the symptoms of PA are similar to those of rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and reactive arthritis. Your doctor may talk about your medical history and may perform a physical examination, blood tests, MRI, and X-rays.


How can Psoriatic Arthritis be treated?

Because there are various features of psoriatic arthritis, there are many treatment options. Some of these are just for signs, such as discomfort and swelling, while some can handle the condition itself and decrease its symptoms.

People react individually to specific treatments, so you may want to try a few options to find what works for you.


Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

NSAIDs can decrease pain and stiffness, but they might not be sufficient to treat signs of psoriatic arthritis for everyone.

Some people notice that NSAIDs work well at first but become less useful after a few weeks. There are about 20 available, including:


  • Ibuprofen
  • etoricoxib
  • etodolac
  • naproxen


Steroid treatment

Steroid injections into a joint can lessen pain and swelling, but the results do wear off.

Having multiple steroid injections into the same joint can begin some damage to the surrounding area, so your doctor will be concerned not to give you too many.

Steroid tablets or a steroid injection into a muscle can be helpful if lots of joints are painful and swollen. But there’s a chance that psoriasis can get more serious when these kinds of steroid treatments wear off.


Biological therapies

Biological therapies are drugs that target essential parts of the immune system to lessen inflammation. You might be capable of trying them if other drugs haven’t worked for you.

Two groups of biological therapies are utilized to treat psoriatic arthritis – anti-TNF drugs and interleukin inhibitors.

Anti-TNF drugs target a protein designated tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Interleukin inhibitors target interleukin proteins.

The body’s immune system provides both TNF and interleukin proteins to act as messenger cells to better create inflammation.

Blocking TNF or interleukin messengers can lessen inflammation and limit damage to the body.

Biological therapy may be directed on its own or at the same time as a DMARD, such as methotrexate.


What is Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis definition is “porous bone.” Healthy bone seems like a honeycomb. When osteoporosis befalls, the holes and spaces in the honeycomb are much greater than in healthy bone. Osteoporotic bones have missed density or mass and include abnormal tissue structures. As bones become less compact, they weaken and are more likely to break.


What are the symptoms of Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis usually has no symptoms. The first indication that you may have is when you break a bone in a nearly minor fall or accident (perceived as a low-impact fracture). Fractures are most apparent in the spine, hip, or wrist. You should watch out for the given things:


  • Loss of height (getting smaller by an inch or more)
  • Change in posture (stooping or flexing forward)
  • Shortness of breath (smaller lung ability due to compressed disks)
  • Bone fractures
  • Pain in the lower back


What are the causes of Osteoporosis?



 Steroids (corticosteroids) are applied to treat several inflammatory conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis. They can influence the production of bone by lessening the amount of calcium absorbed from the gut and improving calcium loss through the kidneys. If you’re likely to require steroids, such as prednisolone, for more than three months, your doctor will suggest calcium and vitamin D tablets and sometimes other medications to maintain osteoporosis.


Lack of weight-bearing exercise

Exercise promotes bone development, and lack of exercise means you’ll be more in danger of losing calcium from the bones and then developing osteoporosis. Muscle and bone health are linked, so it’s also necessary to keep up your muscle strength, which will also lower your risk of falling.


Poor diet

If your diet doesn’t hold enough calcium or vitamin D, or if you’re very underweight, you’ll be at higher risk of osteoporosis.


Heavy smoking

Tobacco is directly toxic to bones. In women, it decreases the estrogen level and may cause early menopause. In men, smoking lowers testosterone activity, and this can also soften the bones.


Heavy drinking

 Drinking a lot of alcohol decreases the body’s ability to make bone. It also raises the risk of breaking a bone as a result of a fall.


Family history

 Osteoporosis does run in families, apparently because there are inherited factors that influence bone development. If a close relative has experienced a fracture linked to osteoporosis, then your own risk of a fracture is likely to be higher than normal.


Lack of estrogen in the body

 If you have early menopause or a hysterectomy where one or both ovaries are separated, this enhances the risk of developing osteoporosis. This is because they cause the body’s estrogen production to decrease dramatically, so the process of bone loss will speed up. Elimination of the ovaries only is quite rare but is also associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis.

Other factors that may influence your risk include:


  • ethnicity
  • low body weight
  • previous fractures
  • Medical conditions, such as coeliac disease (or sometimes treatments) that affect the absorption of food.


How is osteoporosis diagnosed?

Healthcare providers can require a test to give you information about your bone health before obstacles begin. Bone mineral density (BMD) tests are also recognized as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA) scans. These X-rays use very modest amounts of radiation to decide how solid the bones of the spine, hip, or wrist are. Regular X-rays will only display osteoporosis when the disease is very far along.


Can Osteoporosis be treated?

Treatments for established osteoporosis may involve exercise, vitamin and mineral supplements, and medications. Exercise and supplementation are often recommended to help you prevent osteoporosis. Weight-bearing, stability, and balance exercises are all essential.


What are the exercises for Osteoporosis patients?

Exercises that are fit for people with osteoporosis include:


  • weight-bearing aerobics exercise
  • resistance training employing free weights such as dumbbells and barbells, body-weight resistance,
  • elastic band resistance, or weight-training machines
  • exercises to better posture, balance, and body strength, such as tai chi.


Exercises to avoid

As essential as it is to know what exercises can benefit you, it’s just as crucial to know what you shouldn’t do. Some activities, like hiking, jumping rope, climbing, and running, totally put too much pressure on your bones and double the risk of fractures.


Vitamins, supplements, and osteoporosis diet



The best origins of calcium are dairy products, including milk, cheese, and yogurt (low-fat ones are best) calcium-enriched types of milk made from soy, rice, or oats fish that are consumed with the bones, such as tinned sardines. Leafy green vegetables like cabbage, kale, watercress beans, broccoli, chickpeas, some nuts, seeds, and dried fruits. If you don’t eat various dairy products or calcium-enriched substitutes, then you may require a calcium supplement.


Vitamin D

Vitamin D is necessitated for the body to absorb and process calcium, and there’s some proof that Osteoporosis progresses more suddenly in people who don’t have enough vitamin D. Vitamin D is sometimes called the ‘sunshine vitamin’ because it’s produced by the body when the skin is disclosed to sunlight. Vitamin D can also be acquired from some foods, especially from oily fish, or from supplements such as fish liver oil. Though, taking too much fish liver oil is not a good idea. For several people, calcium and vitamin D supplements are guided together with other osteoporosis treatments.

Having a low salt diet, fruits, and vegetables and enriched with calcium and Vitamin D can also help in osteoporosis prevention.


What are the medications for Osteoporosis?

Bisphosphonates are normally the first choice for osteoporosis treatment. These include:


  • Alendronate
  • Risedronate
  • Ibandronate
  • Zoledronic acid

Another popular osteoporosis medication is denosumab (Prolia, Xgeva). Denosumab might be practiced in people who can’t take bisphosphonate, such as in some people with decreased kidney function.

Lower Back Pain

What is Low Back Pain?

The low back, also described as the lumbar region, is the area of the back that begins below the ribcage. Virtually everyone experiences low back pain at some point in life. Luckily, it often gets better on its own. When it doesn’t, your doctor may be able to serve with several effective treatments.


What are the symptoms of Lower Back Pain?

Low back pain can have a wide variety of symptoms. It can be mild and slightly annoying, or it can be severe and debilitating. It may begin suddenly, or it could start slowly—perhaps coming and going—and steadily get worse over time.

Based on the underlying basis of the pain, symptoms can be experienced in a variety of ways. For instance:


  • Pain that is dull or achy included to the low back
  • Stinging, burning pain that flows from the low back to the backs of the thighs, sometimes into the lower legs or feet; can involve numbness or tingle (sciatica)
  • Muscle contractions and tightness in the low back, pelvis, and hips
  • Pain that worsens after continued sitting or standing
  • Trouble in standing up straight, walking or going from standing to sitting


What are the types of Low Back Pain?

There are several ways to categorize low back pain – two common types include:


Mechanical pain:

By far, the most usual cause of lower back pain, mechanical pain (axial pain), is pain basically from the muscles, ligaments, joints (facet joints, sacroiliac joints), or bones in and around the spine. This kind of pain leads to be localized to the lower back, buttocks, and sometimes the tip of the legs. It is usually determined by loading the spine and may feel complex based on motion (forward/backward/twisting), activity, sitting, standing, or resting.


Radicular pain:

This sort of pain can result if a spinal nerve root becomes impinged or inflamed. Radicular pain may develop a nerve root pattern or dermatome down into the buttock and/or leg. Its particular sensation is sharp, electric, burning-type pain and can be connected with numbness or weakness (sciatica). It is normally felt on only one side of the body.



Spondylosis: As we get older, the bones, discs, and ligaments in the spine can generally weaken as they age. This results in all of us to some degree as part of the aging means, but it doesn’t have to be an obstacle, and not everyone will have pain from this. As we get older, the discs in the spine become more fragile, and the spaces within the vertebrae become narrower. Little pieces of bone, identified as osteophytes, may form at the edges of the vertebrae and facet joints. The medical terminology for this is spondylosis and is much related to the changes caused by osteoarthritis in other joints.



Back pain is sometimes connected with pain in the legs, and there may be insensitivity or a tingling feeling. This is named sciatica.

This is because of a nerve in the spine being compressed or pressed. For most people with sciatica, leg pain can be the most critical part, and infrequently they may have light or no back pain at all.

In some cases, sciatica is caused by a bulging disc compressing on the nerve. Discs are composed to bulge so we can move our spines about smoothly, but sometimes a bulge can ‘get’ a nerve root and cause pain that moves down the leg and foot.


Spinal stenosis:

Sometimes back pain is connected with pain in the legs which begins after you start walking for a few minutes and then manages to get better very quickly when you sit down. This is known as spinal stenosis. This can result from birth or can develop as we get older. Problems are caused when something pushes on the small space in the middle of the spine, where the nerves are. This space, which is named the spinal canal or nerve root canal, can be pressed by bone or ligament.

Other rarer conditions of back pain involve:


  • bone difficulties such as a fracture – often associated with thinning of the bones, which is known as osteoporosis
  • an infection
  • a tumor
  • inflammation




Diagnostic Imaging Tests

An imaging scan is sometimes required to obtain more information on the cause of a patient’s pain. A diagnostic imaging test may be prescribed if the patient’s pain is severe, not relieved within two or three months, and does not get better with nonsurgical treatments.

Common imaging tests include:


  • X-Rays
  • CT scan
  • MRI


How can Low Back Pain be treated?

The most basic over-the-counter (OTC) medications are aspirin (e.g., Bayer), ibuprofen (e.g., Advil), ibuprofen, naproxen (e.g., Aleve), and acetaminophen (e.g., Tylenol). Aspirin and naproxen are anti-inflammatory medicines, which relieve low back pain caused by swollen nerves or muscles. Acetaminophen operates by interfering with pain signals sent to the brain.

Other alternatives for treatment include exercises, steroid injection, and surgery (if nothing works)

Knee Pain

What is Knee Pain?

Knee pain can be caused by an unexpected injury, an overuse injury, or by an underlying condition, such as arthritis. Treatment will differ depending on the cause. Symptoms of knee injury can involve pain, swelling, and stiffness.


What are the symptoms?

The severity of knee pain may differ, depending on the cause of the problem. Signs and symptoms that sometimes bring knee pain include:


  • Swelling and stiffness
  • Redness and warmth to the touch
  • Weakness or instability
  • Popping or crunching noises
  • Inability to fully straighten the knee


What are the causes?

Knee pain can be begun by injuries, mechanical difficulties, types of arthritis, and other problems.



A knee injury can change any of the ligaments, tendons, or fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that encircle your knee joint, also the bones, cartilage, and ligaments that form the joint itself. Some of the more typical knee injuries include:


ACL injury

 An ACL injury is a rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) — one of four ligaments that combine your shinbone to your thighbone. An ACL injury is usually common in people who play basketball, soccer, or other sports that need sudden changes in direction.



The bones of the knee, like the kneecap (patella), can be broken during motor vehicle collisions or falls. People whose bones have been decreased by osteoporosis can sometimes maintain a knee fracture simply by stepping wrong.


Torn meniscus

The meniscus is composed of tough, rubbery cartilage and acts as a shock absorber within your shinbone and thighbone. It can be torn if you abruptly bend your knee while bearing weight on it.


Knee bursitis

 Unusual knee injuries cause swelling in the bursae, the small sacs of fluid that cushion the outline of your knee joint so that tendons and ligaments glide easily over the joint.


Patellar tendinitis

Tendinitis is soreness and inflammation of one or more tendons — the thick, fibrous tissues that connect muscles to bones. Runners, skiers, cyclists, and those included in jumping sports and activities may develop inflammation in the patellar tendon, which attaches the quadriceps muscle on the front of the thigh to the shinbone.


What are the mechanical problems?

Some examples of mechanical problems that can begin knee pain include:


Loose body

Sometimes damage or degeneration of bone or cartilage can begin a piece of bone or cartilage to cut off and drift in the joint space. This may not create any difficulties unless the loose body interferes with knee joint movement, in which case the result is something like a pencil caught in a door hinge.


Iliotibial band syndrome

This happens when the mighty band of tissue that stretches from the edge of your hip to the edge of your knee (iliotibial band) becomes so compact that it rubs against the outer portion of your femur. Country runners and cyclists are especially sensitive to iliotibial band syndrome.


Dislocated kneecap

 This may happen when the triangular bone (patella) that includes the front of your knee slips out of place, frequently to the outside of your knee. In some cases, the kneecap may stay dismissed, and you’ll be capable of seeing the dislocation.


Hip or foot pain

With hip or foot pain, you may improve the way you walk to spare these painful joints. But this changed gait can place more stress on your knee joint. In some cases, obstacles in the hip or foot can cause knee pain.


What are the risk factors?

A number of factors can enhance your risk of having knee problems, including:


  • Excess weight
  • Lack of muscle flexibility or strength
  • Certain sports or occupations
  • Previous injury (Having a knee injury at some phase of life makes it more likely that you’ll injure your knee again)


How can Knee Pain be diagnosed?

Throughout the physical exam, your doctor is likely to:


  • Probe your knee for swelling, pain, warmth, tenderness, and visible bruising
  • Monitor to see how far you can move your lower leg in various directions
  • Push on or pull the joint to assess the integrity of the structures in your knee

In some cases, the physician may prescribe an x-ray, CT scan, or ultrasound.


What are the treatments?





Injections of a corticosteroid drug inside your knee joint may aid reduce the symptoms of an arthritis flare and give pain relief that may last a few months.


Hyaluronic acid

 A thick fluid, like the fluid that naturally lubricates joints, hyaluronic acid can be inserted into your knee to enhance mobility and ease the pain.


Platelet-rich plasma (PRP)

PRP includes a concentration of many different growth factors that seem to decrease inflammation and improve healing. These types of injections tend to work strongly in people whose knee pain is caused by tendon tears, sprains, or injury.



Reinforcing the muscles throughout your knee will make it more enduring. Your doctor may prescribe physical therapy or different types of strengthening exercises based on the particular condition that is causing your pain.



If you have an injury that may need surgery, it’s usually not necessary to have the operation immediately. Before making any decision, analyze the pros and cons of both nonsurgical rehabilitation and surgical rehabilitation about what’s most important to you.


What is Fibromyalgia?

Fibromyalgia is a disorder described by extensive musculoskeletal pain accompanied by fatigue, memory, sleep, and mood issues. Researchers assume that fibromyalgia amplifies painful sensations by altering the way your brain and spinal cord process painful and no painful signals.

Women are more likely to generate fibromyalgia than are men. Many people who have fibromyalgia also have stress headaches, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, and depression.

Symptoms often start after an event, such as physical trauma, surgery, infection, or significant psychological stress. In other cases, symptoms continuously accumulate over time with no single triggering event.


What are the symptoms

The basic symptoms of fibromyalgia include:



 The pain connected with fibromyalgia often is defined as a constant dull ache that has lasted for at least three months. To be deemed widespread, the pain must occur on both sides of your body and above and beneath your waist.



 People with fibromyalgia often awaken exhausted, even though they report sleeping for many hours. Sleep is often intruded by pain, and many patients with fibromyalgia have other sleep disorders, such as unsettled legs syndrome and sleep apnea.


Cognitive difficulties

 A symptom usually referred to as “fibro fog” impairs the capacity to focus, pay consideration and concentrate on mental tasks.

Fibromyalgia frequently co-exists with other conditions, such as:


  • Short-tempered bowel syndrome
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Migraine and other kinds of headaches
  • Interstitial cystitis or irritable bladder syndrome
  • Temporomandibular joint disorders
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Postural tachycardia syndrome


What are the trigger points?

Basic trigger points covered the:

back of the head


  • tips of the shoulders
  • upper chest
  • hips
  • knees
  • outer elbows

For the greatest part, trigger points are no longer a portion of the diagnostic process.


What causes Fibromyalgia?

Healthcare providers and researchers don’t know what generates fibromyalgia. According to the newest research, the cause appears to be a multiple-hit theory that includes genetic disposition (hereditary traits) complemented by a trigger or a set of triggers, such as germs, trauma, and stress.


Risk Factors



Most fibromyalgia cases are surprisingly diagnosed in women, although the cause for this gender difference isn’t clear.



You’re most likely to be diagnosed at an intermediate age (middle), and your risk rises as you get older. Nevertheless, children can develop fibromyalgia also.


Family history

If you have a close family person with fibromyalgia, you may be a greater chance of developing it.



Although fibromyalgia isn’t a kind of arthritis, having lupus or RA may increase your risk of also having fibromyalgia.



Your doctor may diagnose you with fibromyalgia if you’ve had widespread pain for the last three months or longer. “Widespread” indicates the pain is on both sides of your body, and you feel it above and below your waist.

After a thorough inspection, your healthcare provider must assume that no other condition is causing your pain.

No lab test or imaging scan can identify fibromyalgia. Your doctor may use these tests to further rule out other attainable causes of your chronic pain.

Fibromyalgia can be difficult for healthcare providers to identify from autoimmune diseases because the symptoms often overlap.


Fibromyalgia treatment

Currently, there isn’t a cure for fibromyalgia. Preferably, treatment focuses on decreasing symptoms and improving quality of life with:


  • Medications like Pain killers, anti-depressant, anti-seizure drugs
  • self-care strategies
  • Physical therapy
  • lifestyle changes

Medications can overcome pain and help you sleep better. Physical and occupational therapy increases your strength and reduces stress on your body. Exercise and stress-reduction techniques can benefit you to feel better, both mentally and physically. In addition, you may want to seek out support and guidance. This may include seeing a therapist or joining a support group.


Diet recommendations

Dietary plans to keep in mind:


  • Eat vegetables and fruits, along with whole grains, low-fat dairy, and lean protein.
  • Take plenty of water.
  • Eat more plants than meat.
  • Limit the quantity of sugar in your diet.
  • Exercise regularly
  • Work toward obtaining and maintaining your healthy weight.

Certain foods make your symptoms more serious, such as gluten or MSG.

Back Pain

Back Pain

Back pain can result from injury, exercise, and some medical conditions. Back pain can influence people of any age for various reasons. As people get older, the danger of developing back pain rises due to factors such as previous occupation and degenerative disk disease.



Back pain can differ from a muscle aching to a shooting, burning, or stabbing sensation. In addition, the pain may spread down your leg or worsen with bending, twisting, standing, lifting, or walking.



Back pain usually develops without a cause that your doctor can recognize with a test or an imaging study. Conditions usually linked to back pain include:

The human back is comprised of a complex structure of muscles, ligaments, discs, tendons, and bones, which work together to strengthen the body and allow us to move around.

The parts of the spine are cushioned with cartilage-like pads called disks.

Difficulties with any of these components can begin back pain. In some instances of back pain, its cause remains unclear. Injury can result from strain, medical conditions, and poor posture, among others.

Repeated apathetic lifting or a sudden uncomfortable movement can strain back muscles and spinal ligaments. If you’re in lower physical condition, continuous strain on your back can cause painful muscle spasms.


Risk factors

Any person can experience back pain, even children and teens. These circumstances might put you at a greater chance of developing back pain:


  • Back pain is general as you get older, beginning around age 30 or 40.
  • Vulnerable, unused muscles in your back and abdomen might lead to back pain.
  • Excess body weight puts additional stress on your back.
  • Some types of arthritis and cancer can add to back pain.
  • Using your back alternately of your legs can lead to back pain.
  • People likely to have depression and anxiety appear to have a higher risk of back pain.
  • Smokers have improved rates of back pain. This may happen because smoking provokes more coughing, which can lead to herniated disks. Smoking can also overcome blood flow to the spine and increase the risk of osteoporosis.


Back Pain Prevention

You might avoid back pain or limit its recurrence by increasing your physical condition and learning and practicing proper body mechanics.

To keep your back healthy and strong:


  • Regular low-impact aerobics activities — those that don’t strive or jolt your back — can enhance strength and strength in your back and allow your muscles to function better. Walking and swimming are good options. Talk with your doctor about which practices you might try.
  • Abdominal and back muscle exercises, which increase your core, help condition these muscles so that they work together as a real corset for your back.
  • Being overweight strains back muscles. If you’re overweight, cutting down can prevent back pain.
  • Smoking boosts your risk of low back pain. The risk increases with the number of cigarettes smoked per day, so quitting should help reduce this risk.


Back pain treatment

Many individuals will not require extensive treatment for back pain. Over-the-counter pain medications are frequently sufficient. In more severe cases, more effective treatments may be required, but they’re typically given under close supervision from your doctor.


Physical therapy

Applying heat, ultrasound, ice, and electrical stimulation — also some muscle-release methods to the back muscles and soft tissues — may assist in alleviating pain.

As the pain increases, the physical therapist may introduce some flexibility and strength exercises for the back and abdominal muscles. Techniques for developing posture may also help.



Antidepressants and other medications can sometimes be applied off-label for the medication of back pain. If your back pain is sharp, your doctor may prescribe an antidepressant because it concentrates on various parts of the pain response. This antidepressant may also work adequately for nerve-related pain.


Steroid injections

Your doctor might also prescribe cortisone steroid injections for severe back pain. Still, pain relief from steroid injections usually wears off by around three months.


Back Pain Surgery

Surgery is a last resort procedure and is rarely needed for back pain. It’s normally reserved for structural abnormalities that haven’t responded to conservative treatment with medicines and therapy.

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