Osteoporosis

What is Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis definition is “porous bone.” Healthy bone seems like a honeycomb. When osteoporosis befalls, the holes and spaces in the honeycomb are much greater than in healthy bone. Osteoporotic bones have missed density or mass and include abnormal tissue structures. As bones become less compact, they weaken and are more likely to break.

 

What are the symptoms of Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis usually has no symptoms. The first indication that you may have is when you break a bone in a nearly minor fall or accident (perceived as a low-impact fracture). Fractures are most apparent in the spine, hip, or wrist. You should watch out for the given things:

 

  • Loss of height (getting smaller by an inch or more)
  • Change in posture (stooping or flexing forward)
  • Shortness of breath (smaller lung ability due to compressed disks)
  • Bone fractures
  • Pain in the lower back

 

What are the causes of Osteoporosis?

 

Steroids

 Steroids (corticosteroids) are applied to treat several inflammatory conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis. They can influence the production of bone by lessening the amount of calcium absorbed from the gut and improving calcium loss through the kidneys. If you’re likely to require steroids, such as prednisolone, for more than three months, your doctor will suggest calcium and vitamin D tablets and sometimes other medications to maintain osteoporosis.

 

Lack of weight-bearing exercise

Exercise promotes bone development, and lack of exercise means you’ll be more in danger of losing calcium from the bones and then developing osteoporosis. Muscle and bone health are linked, so it’s also necessary to keep up your muscle strength, which will also lower your risk of falling.

 

Poor diet

If your diet doesn’t hold enough calcium or vitamin D, or if you’re very underweight, you’ll be at higher risk of osteoporosis.

 

Heavy smoking

Tobacco is directly toxic to bones. In women, it decreases the estrogen level and may cause early menopause. In men, smoking lowers testosterone activity, and this can also soften the bones.

 

Heavy drinking

 Drinking a lot of alcohol decreases the body’s ability to make bone. It also raises the risk of breaking a bone as a result of a fall.

 

Family history

 Osteoporosis does run in families, apparently because there are inherited factors that influence bone development. If a close relative has experienced a fracture linked to osteoporosis, then your own risk of a fracture is likely to be higher than normal.

 

Lack of estrogen in the body

 If you have early menopause or a hysterectomy where one or both ovaries are separated, this enhances the risk of developing osteoporosis. This is because they cause the body’s estrogen production to decrease dramatically, so the process of bone loss will speed up. Elimination of the ovaries only is quite rare but is also associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis.

Other factors that may influence your risk include:

 

  • ethnicity
  • low body weight
  • previous fractures
  • Medical conditions, such as coeliac disease (or sometimes treatments) that affect the absorption of food.

 

How is osteoporosis diagnosed?

Healthcare providers can require a test to give you information about your bone health before obstacles begin. Bone mineral density (BMD) tests are also recognized as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA) scans. These X-rays use very modest amounts of radiation to decide how solid the bones of the spine, hip, or wrist are. Regular X-rays will only display osteoporosis when the disease is very far along.

 

Can Osteoporosis be treated?

Treatments for established osteoporosis may involve exercise, vitamin and mineral supplements, and medications. Exercise and supplementation are often recommended to help you prevent osteoporosis. Weight-bearing, stability, and balance exercises are all essential.

 

What are the exercises for Osteoporosis patients?

Exercises that are fit for people with osteoporosis include:

 

  • weight-bearing aerobics exercise
  • resistance training employing free weights such as dumbbells and barbells, body-weight resistance,
  • elastic band resistance, or weight-training machines
  • exercises to better posture, balance, and body strength, such as tai chi.

 

Exercises to avoid

As essential as it is to know what exercises can benefit you, it’s just as crucial to know what you shouldn’t do. Some activities, like hiking, jumping rope, climbing, and running, totally put too much pressure on your bones and double the risk of fractures.

 

Vitamins, supplements, and osteoporosis diet

 

Calcium

The best origins of calcium are dairy products, including milk, cheese, and yogurt (low-fat ones are best) calcium-enriched types of milk made from soy, rice, or oats fish that are consumed with the bones, such as tinned sardines. Leafy green vegetables like cabbage, kale, watercress beans, broccoli, chickpeas, some nuts, seeds, and dried fruits. If you don’t eat various dairy products or calcium-enriched substitutes, then you may require a calcium supplement.

 

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is necessitated for the body to absorb and process calcium, and there’s some proof that Osteoporosis progresses more suddenly in people who don’t have enough vitamin D. Vitamin D is sometimes called the ‘sunshine vitamin’ because it’s produced by the body when the skin is disclosed to sunlight. Vitamin D can also be acquired from some foods, especially from oily fish, or from supplements such as fish liver oil. Though, taking too much fish liver oil is not a good idea. For several people, calcium and vitamin D supplements are guided together with other osteoporosis treatments.

Having a low salt diet, fruits, and vegetables and enriched with calcium and Vitamin D can also help in osteoporosis prevention.

 

What are the medications for Osteoporosis?

Bisphosphonates are normally the first choice for osteoporosis treatment. These include:

 

  • Alendronate
  • Risedronate
  • Ibandronate
  • Zoledronic acid

Another popular osteoporosis medication is denosumab (Prolia, Xgeva). Denosumab might be practiced in people who can’t take bisphosphonate, such as in some people with decreased kidney function.